Corona viruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans and birds. In man, it usually causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but in rare cases can be lethal.
There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for the prevention or treatment.
Coronaviruses primarily infect the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds. They also cause a range of diseases in farm animals and domesticated pets some of which can be serious and are a threat to the farming industry.
In human, coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms like fever, throat swollen adenoids in humans primarily in the winter and early spring season, coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or secondary bacteria pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis.
SINGS AND SYMPTOMS
Common human coronavirus produces mild and moderate upper respiratory tract illness with the following symptoms;
- Runny nose
- Sore throat
- General feeling of being unwell
However, some strains of human coronavirus which are known to cause severe symptoms are MERS-COV and SARS-COV. These are the ones responsible for some severe outbreaks.
Symptoms usually include fever, cough and shortening of breath which often progresses to pneumonia. About 3 or 4 every 10 patients have died
Definitive diagnosis is only by laboratory testing which is only available in specialized laboratories.
MODE OF TRANSMISSION
Human coronaviruses more commonly spreads from an infected person to others through:
- The air by sneezing and coughing
- Close personal contact, such as touching and shaking hands
- Touching an object or surface with the virus on it, then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes before washing your hands
- Rarely fecal contamination
As earlier, there are currently no vaccines available to protect against having coronavirus infection.
However, risk is reduced by;
- Washing of hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.
- Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth with unwashed hands.
- Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
To protect others, if you have cold-like symptoms;
- Stay home while you are sick
- Avoid close contact with others
- Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you sneeze or cough, then throw the tissue in the trash and wash your hands.
Clean and disinfect objects and surfaces